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    Several zones of Ghardaïa concealed vestiges dating from prehistory, in particular of the age of the first quaternary one. The vestiges of the prehistoric man were discovered in the area, thanks to the excavations undertaken by the professors: Pierre Roffo, YVES Bonnet, Joel Abonneau, Nadjib Ferhat, Malika Rachid… etc


- Site of the area of El-Menéa
- Site of the area of Metlili,
- Site of the area of Noumerate.
- Site of the area of Laâdira Ghardaïa

B) - funeraryvestigessymbolic systems:

- Site Aâmud Laâmiyed Guerrara,
- Site Garat And-ttaâm Bounoura… etc
- Bouhraoua Site.

C) - the rock engravings disseminated in the areas of:


- Oukhira Site in El-Atteuf.
- Intiça Site and Moumou with Béni Isguène,
- Bouhraoua Site
- Site the old man ksar of Baba Saad in Ghardaïa,
- Site of Sidi Mbarek in Berriane… etc
- Site Atfat Al katba in Daïa Ben Dahoua.
- Like along two banks of Mzab valley.
  According to scientific researches these engravings date between 18,000 years A.J.C and 5,000 years A.J.C from LYBYCO BERBER period in the Bronze Age.
- ROFFO. Pierre
   Paleolithic civilizations of Me Zab 1934
- YVES Bonnet
    Rupestral engravings of Me zab. 1962.   
- JOEL abonneau:
    The prehistory of Me zab 1986
- NADJIB Ferhat:
   Rupestral art integrated in an urban allotment (the case of the site of the View-point of Blessed - Isguène) 2001

TheMiddle Ages

     Ibadhites who were the pioneers of this civilization and the first builders of the valley of Me zab there elected residence after having chosen the way of the exile which led them town from TAHERT, capital of the Rostomide state, after its destruction in 909, and after an episode of galley and wandering chose in the final analysis to settle definitively in the M’ zab valley. however hostile to any kind of life, inhospitable, and characterized by the strong aridity of its ground as well as the scarcity of its water resources.

  Ibadhites undertook the progressive urbanisation of this valley, consequently with the advent of the halqua of Azzaba ibadite from (10th century J.C.). By institutionalizing the cultural practice, by teaching  the populations of the valley the importance of the institution and its primacy on the tribal or individual action and by establishing the standardization as bases of any action, the sheiks of the halqua succeeded in engaging a process of urbanisation of all the valley and beyond Mzab, which was spread out over more than ten centuries.

    Previously, the Mzab valley had known groupings tribal enguirlandement, dated between the 8th and the 10th century, it is the ruins of the first Berber ksours of the valley preceding the creation of the pentapole. The ksours fallen into ruin appear among the famous vestiges,.
As illustration, we can quote the vestiges of the following ksars:
- Ksar de Talazdit (wool ball) close to the dam El Atteuf.
- Ksar de Aoulawal (martyr) in the oasis of El Atteuf.
- Ksar de Tamezert in the palm grove of Bounoura
- Ksar of Agherm-ouadday in the south of the city of Mélika founded in 1012.
- Ksar de Baba Saâd which overoverlooks the town of Ghardaïa founded in 1004.  
- Ksar Taourirt of El-menéaa in 10th century.
- Ksour Tirichine, Agnounay, Tlat Moussa in the palm grove of Beni-Isguène
    With the advent of the halqua, the mozabites succeeded in setting the bases of a new life distinguished by a perfect urbanization, which led to the development of these refractory regions - at the origin - to an enduring establishment.
    This installation has given birth to five splendid cities equipped each one with its palm grove. These cities were built successively according to the same structural diagram during the period going from 1012 to 1353 along the bed of the Me zab valley.

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